PostgreSQL 12.16 (upcoming) commit log

Fix misbehavior of EvalPlanQual checks with multiple result relations.

commit   : ff77d8687fa3cee525fbfcf6b50b685c1ab8feab    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 19 May 2023 14:26:34 -0400    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 19 May 2023 14:26:34 -0400    

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The idea of EvalPlanQual is that we replace the query's scan of the  
result relation with a single injected tuple, and see if we get a  
tuple out, thereby implying that the injected tuple still passes the  
query quals.  (In join cases, other relations in the query are still  
scanned normally.)  This logic was not updated when commit 86dc90056  
made it possible for a single DML query plan to have multiple result  
relations, when the query target relation has inheritance or partition  
children.  We replaced the output for the current result relation  
successfully, but other result relations were still scanned normally;  
thus, if any other result relation contained a tuple satisfying the  
quals, we'd think the EPQ check passed, even if it did not pass for  
the injected tuple itself.  This would lead to update or delete  
actions getting performed when they should have been skipped due to  
a conflicting concurrent update in READ COMMITTED isolation mode.  
Fix by blocking all sibling result relations from emitting tuples  
during an EvalPlanQual recheck.  In the back branches, the fix is  
complicated a bit by the need to not change the size of struct  
EPQState (else we'd have ABI-breaking changes in offsets in  
struct ModifyTableState).  Like the back-patches of 3f7836ff6  
and 4b3e37993, add a separately palloc'd struct to avoid that.  
The logic is the same as in HEAD otherwise.  
This is only a live bug back to v14 where 86dc90056 came in.  
However, I chose to back-patch the test cases further, on the  
grounds that this whole area is none too well tested.  I skipped  
doing so in v11 though because none of the test applied cleanly,  
and it didn't quite seem worth extra work for a branch with only  
six months to live.  
Per report from Ante Krešić (via Aleksander Alekseev)  

M src/test/isolation/expected/eval-plan-qual.out
M src/test/isolation/specs/eval-plan-qual.spec

Avoid naming conflict between transactions.sql and namespace.sql.

commit   : cf9de891ba388829c4a777f48c22fbf93a24d3ea    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 19 May 2023 10:57:46 -0400    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 19 May 2023 10:57:46 -0400    

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Commits 681d9e462 et al added a test case in namespace.sql that  
implicitly relied on there not being a table "".  
However, the concurrently-run transactions.sql test creates precisely  
such a table, so with the right timing you'd get a failure.  
Creating a table named as generically as "abc" in a common schema  
seems like bad practice, so fix this by changing the name of  
transactions.sql's table.  (Compare 2cf8c7aa4.)  
Marina Polyakova  

M src/test/regress/expected/transactions.out
M src/test/regress/sql/transactions.sql

Fix handling of empty ranges and NULLs in BRIN

commit   : d78a66d92c739843ff29e056e3bddf8a9adc99d2    
author   : Tomas Vondra <>    
date     : Fri, 19 May 2023 00:00:22 +0200    
committer: Tomas Vondra <>    
date     : Fri, 19 May 2023 00:00:22 +0200    

Click here for diff

BRIN indexes did not properly distinguish between summaries for empty  
(no rows) and all-NULL ranges, treating them as essentially the same  
thing. Summaries were initialized with allnulls=true, and opclasses  
simply reset allnulls to false when processing the first non-NULL value.  
This however produces incorrect results if the range starts with a NULL  
value (or a sequence of NULL values), in which case we forget the range  
contains NULL values when adding the first non-NULL value.  
This happens because the allnulls flag is used for two separate  
purposes - to mark empty ranges (not representing any rows yet) and  
ranges containing only NULL values.  
Opclasses don't know which of these cases it is, and so don't know  
whether to set hasnulls=true. Setting the flag in both cases would make  
it correct, but it would also make BRIN indexes useless for queries with  
IS NULL clauses. All ranges start empty (and thus allnulls=true), so all  
ranges would end up with either allnulls=true or hasnulls=true.  
The severity of the issue is somewhat reduced by the fact that it only  
happens when adding values to an existing summary with allnulls=true.  
This can happen e.g. for small tables (because a summary for the first  
range exists for all BRIN indexes), or for tables with large fraction of  
NULL values in the indexed columns.  
Bulk summarization (e.g. during CREATE INDEX or automatic summarization)  
that processes all values at once is not affected by this issue. In this  
case the flags were updated in a slightly different way, not forgetting  
the NULL values.  
To identify empty ranges we use a new flag, stored in an unused bit in  
the BRIN tuple header so the on-disk format remains the same. A matching  
flag is added to BrinMemTuple, into a 3B gap after bt_placeholder.  
That means there's no risk of ABI breakage, although we don't actually  
pass the BrinMemTuple to any public API.  
We could also skip storing index tuples for empty summaries, but then  
we'd have to always process such ranges - even if there are no rows in  
large parts of the table (e.g. after a bulk DELETE), it would still  
require reading the pages etc. So we store them, but ignore them when  
building the bitmap.  
Backpatch to 11. The issue exists since BRIN indexes were introduced in  
9.5, but older releases are already EOL.  
Backpatch-through: 11  
Reviewed-by: Justin Pryzby, Matthias van de Meent, Alvaro Herrera  

M src/backend/access/brin/brin.c
M src/backend/access/brin/brin_tuple.c
M src/include/access/brin_tuple.h
M src/test/modules/brin/expected/summarization-and-inprogress-insertion.out
M src/test/modules/brin/specs/summarization-and-inprogress-insertion.spec

Fix handling of NULLs when merging BRIN summaries

commit   : d42ffda685f5dbd123df59c2f8050e8fb09164c7    
author   : Tomas Vondra <>    
date     : Thu, 18 May 2023 13:00:31 +0200    
committer: Tomas Vondra <>    
date     : Thu, 18 May 2023 13:00:31 +0200    

Click here for diff

When merging BRIN summaries, union_tuples() did not correctly update the  
target hasnulls/allnulls flags. When merging all-NULL summary into a  
summary without any NULL values, the result had both flags set to false  
(instead of having hasnulls=true).  
This happened because the code only considered the hasnulls flags,  
ignoring the possibility the source summary has allnulls=true.  
Discovered while investigating issues with handling empty BRIN ranges  
and handling of NULL values, but it's a separate problem (has nothing to  
do with empty ranges).  
Fixed by considering both flags on the source summary, and updating the  
hasnulls flag on the target summary.  
Backpatch to 11. The bug exists since 9.5 (where BRIN indexes were  
introduced), but those releases are EOL already.  

M src/backend/access/brin/brin_inclusion.c
M src/backend/access/brin/brin_minmax.c

Ensure Soundex difference() function handles empty input sanely.

commit   : 0966291a4ade47f7c14313ab7868d1de4e4f6688    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Tue, 16 May 2023 10:53:42 -0400    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Tue, 16 May 2023 10:53:42 -0400    

Click here for diff

fuzzystrmatch's difference() function assumes that _soundex()  
always initializes its output buffer fully.  This was not so for  
the case of a string containing no alphabetic characters, resulting  
in unstable output and Valgrind complaints.  
Fix by using memset() to fill the whole buffer in the early-exit  
case.  Also make some cosmetic improvements (I didn't care for the  
random switches between "instr[0]" and "*instr" notation).  
Report and diagnosis by Alexander Lakhin (bug #17935).  
Back-patch to all supported branches.  

M contrib/fuzzystrmatch/expected/fuzzystrmatch.out
M contrib/fuzzystrmatch/fuzzystrmatch.c
M contrib/fuzzystrmatch/sql/fuzzystrmatch.sql

commit   : 3282e071bc594923f5d5f09c6f5b548e425a558a    
author   : Peter Geoghegan <>    
date     : Wed, 10 May 2023 10:49:41 -0700    
committer: Peter Geoghegan <>    
date     : Wed, 10 May 2023 10:49:41 -0700    

Click here for diff

Fix a link from the "Heap-Only Tuples" documentation section.  
Previously, its "fillfactor" link pointed to the "CREATE TABLE"  
command's documentation.  Now the link directly points to the fillfactor  
storage parameter documentation (which is about half way into the  
"CREATE TABLE" sect1).  
Oversight in commit 115464bb.  
Backpatch: 12-, the first version with a usable reloption link.  

M doc/src/sgml/storage.sgml