PostgreSQL 9.1.20 commit log

Stamp 9.1.20.

commit   : 3dca6f36fcd694c8c49d26e7c4971194dee2754a    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Mon, 8 Feb 2016 16:21:40 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Mon, 8 Feb 2016 16:21:40 -0500    

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M configure
M doc/bug.template
M src/include/pg_config.h.win32
M src/interfaces/libpq/
M src/port/win32ver.rc

Translation updates

commit   : 862b4a427c18579327a7cfff4ac0377ef762dfa7    
author   : Peter Eisentraut <>    
date     : Mon, 8 Feb 2016 14:50:20 -0500    
committer: Peter Eisentraut <>    
date     : Mon, 8 Feb 2016 14:50:20 -0500    

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Source-Git-URL: git://  
Source-Git-Hash: bbedbfae7586389e1f43b8116d76af3ac528c211  

M src/backend/po/de.po
M src/backend/po/pl.po
M src/backend/po/ru.po
M src/bin/pg_ctl/po/de.po
M src/bin/pg_ctl/po/ru.po
M src/bin/pg_dump/po/de.po
M src/bin/pg_dump/po/ru.po
M src/bin/pg_resetxlog/po/ru.po
M src/bin/psql/po/de.po
M src/bin/psql/po/ru.po
M src/interfaces/ecpg/preproc/po/pt_BR.po
M src/pl/plperl/po/ru.po

Last-minute updates for release notes.

commit   : 730c89b7926f55722bda94844bf53be7a42e9e7b    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Mon, 8 Feb 2016 10:49:38 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Mon, 8 Feb 2016 10:49:38 -0500    

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Security: CVE-2016-0773  

M doc/src/sgml/release-9.1.sgml

Fix some regex issues with out-of-range characters and large char ranges.

commit   : 98d6b73059c31102892dc6cc4a340c2ba09b7fa6    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Mon, 8 Feb 2016 10:25:40 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Mon, 8 Feb 2016 10:25:40 -0500    

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Previously, our regex code defined CHR_MAX as 0xfffffffe, which is a  
bad choice because it is outside the range of type "celt" (int32).  
Characters approaching that limit could lead to infinite loops in logic  
such as "for (c = a; c <= b; c++)" where c is of type celt but the  
range bounds are chr.  Such loops will work safely only if CHR_MAX+1  
is representable in celt, since c must advance to beyond b before the  
loop will exit.  
Fortunately, there seems no reason not to restrict CHR_MAX to 0x7ffffffe.  
It's highly unlikely that Unicode will ever assign codes that high, and  
none of our other backend encodings need characters beyond that either.  
In addition to modifying the macro, we have to explicitly enforce character  
range restrictions on the values of \u, \U, and \x escape sequences, else  
the limit is trivially bypassed.  
Also, the code for expanding case-independent character ranges in bracket  
expressions had a potential integer overflow in its calculation of the  
number of characters it could generate, which could lead to allocating too  
small a character vector and then overwriting memory.  An attacker with the  
ability to supply arbitrary regex patterns could easily cause transient DOS  
via server crashes, and the possibility for privilege escalation has not  
been ruled out.  
Quite aside from the integer-overflow problem, the range expansion code was  
unnecessarily inefficient in that it always produced a result consisting of  
individual characters, abandoning the knowledge that we had a range to  
start with.  If the input range is large, this requires excessive memory.  
Change it so that the original range is reported as-is, and then we add on  
any case-equivalent characters that are outside that range.  With this  
approach, we can bound the number of individual characters allowed without  
sacrificing much.  This patch allows at most 100000 individual characters,  
which I believe to be more than the number of case pairs existing in  
Unicode, so that the restriction will never be hit in practice.  
It's still possible for range() to take awhile given a large character code  
range, so also add statement-cancel detection to its loop.  The downstream  
function dovec() also lacked cancel detection, and could take a long time  
given a large output from range().  
Per fuzz testing by Greg Stark.  Back-patch to all supported branches.  
Security: CVE-2016-0773  

M src/backend/regex/regc_lex.c
M src/backend/regex/regc_locale.c
M src/backend/regex/regcomp.c
M src/include/regex/regcustom.h

Improve documentation about PRIMARY KEY constraints.

commit   : f6c7bfb597a365b6dd2b8e1c2e00582d39b05ba0    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sun, 7 Feb 2016 16:02:44 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sun, 7 Feb 2016 16:02:44 -0500    

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Get rid of the false implication that PRIMARY KEY is exactly equivalent to  
UNIQUE + NOT NULL.  That was more-or-less true at one time in our  
implementation, but the standard doesn't say that, and we've grown various  
features (many of them required by spec) that treat a pkey differently from  
less-formal constraints.  Per recent discussion on pgsql-general.  
I failed to resist the temptation to do some other wordsmithing in the  
same area.  

M doc/src/sgml/ddl.sgml
M doc/src/sgml/ref/create_table.sgml

Release notes for 9.5.1, 9.4.6, 9.3.11, 9.2.15, 9.1.20.

commit   : 2d5932580afca6f56f83ce36b04b533d173ad23e    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sun, 7 Feb 2016 14:16:32 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sun, 7 Feb 2016 14:16:32 -0500    

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M doc/src/sgml/release-9.1.sgml

Force certain "pljava" custom GUCs to be PGC_SUSET.

commit   : b1f591c50e3bd359c610e59dfbd3787c00ac191e    
author   : Noah Misch <>    
date     : Fri, 5 Feb 2016 20:22:51 -0500    
committer: Noah Misch <>    
date     : Fri, 5 Feb 2016 20:22:51 -0500    

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Future PL/Java versions will close CVE-2016-0766 by making these GUCs  
PGC_SUSET.  This PostgreSQL change independently mitigates that PL/Java  
vulnerability, helping sites that update PostgreSQL more frequently than  
PL/Java.  Back-patch to 9.1 (all supported versions).  

M src/backend/utils/misc/guc.c

Update time zone data files to tzdata release 2016a.

commit   : 6887d72d06a2f36508d5be9cca316088d4c60b26    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 5 Feb 2016 10:59:09 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 5 Feb 2016 10:59:09 -0500    

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DST law changes in Cayman Islands, Metlakatla, Trans-Baikal Territory  
(Zabaykalsky Krai).  Historical corrections for Pakistan.  

M src/timezone/data/asia
M src/timezone/data/backward
M src/timezone/data/backzone
M src/timezone/data/europe
M src/timezone/data/northamerica
M src/timezone/data/
M src/timezone/data/

In pg_dump, ensure that view triggers are processed after view rules.

commit   : 9c704632c26976468a83010b18edefc4851fb2dd    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Thu, 4 Feb 2016 00:26:10 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Thu, 4 Feb 2016 00:26:10 -0500    

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If a view is split into CREATE TABLE + CREATE RULE to break a circular  
dependency, then any triggers on the view must be dumped/reloaded after  
the CREATE RULE; else the backend may reject the CREATE TRIGGER because  
it's the wrong type of trigger for a plain table.  This works all right  
in plain dump/restore because of pg_dump's sorting heuristic that places  
triggers after rules.  However, when using parallel restore, the ordering  
must be enforced by a dependency --- and we didn't have one.  
Fixing this is a mere matter of adding an addObjectDependency() call,  
except that we need to be able to find all the triggers belonging to the  
view relation, and there was no easy way to do that.  Add fields to  
pg_dump's TableInfo struct to remember where the associated TriggerInfo  
struct(s) are.  
Per bug report from Dennis Kögel.  The failure can be exhibited at least  
as far back as 9.1, so back-patch to all supported branches.  

M src/bin/pg_dump/pg_dump.c
M src/bin/pg_dump/pg_dump.h
M src/bin/pg_dump/pg_dump_sort.c

pgbench: Install guard against overflow when dividing by -1.

commit   : 4c8b07d3c4300dd9e6e3a8b6dc8260c128a9cd75    
author   : Robert Haas <>    
date     : Wed, 3 Feb 2016 09:15:29 -0500    
committer: Robert Haas <>    
date     : Wed, 3 Feb 2016 09:15:29 -0500    

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Commit 64f5edca2401f6c2f23564da9dd52e92d08b3a20 fixed the same hazard  
on master; this is a backport, but the modulo operator does not exist  
in older releases.  
Michael Paquier  

M contrib/pgbench/pgbench.c

Make sure ecpg header files do not have a comment lasting several lines, one of which is a preprocessor directive. This leads ecpg to incorrectly parse the comment as nested.

commit   : 79782b4075ab03708e3cc645b77b9a2635d85afa    
author   : Michael Meskes <>    
date     : Mon, 1 Feb 2016 13:10:40 +0100    
committer: Michael Meskes <>    
date     : Mon, 1 Feb 2016 13:10:40 +0100    

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M src/interfaces/ecpg/include/datetime.h
M src/interfaces/ecpg/include/decimal.h

Fix error in documentated use of mingw-w64 compilers

commit   : d9c76aa4982ccf764bcd9d8f1fb788463c340e65    
author   : Andrew Dunstan <>    
date     : Sat, 30 Jan 2016 19:28:44 -0500    
committer: Andrew Dunstan <>    
date     : Sat, 30 Jan 2016 19:28:44 -0500    

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Error reported by Igal Sapir.  

M doc/src/sgml/installation.sgml

Fix incorrect pattern-match processing in psql's \det command.

commit   : ed5f57218f4f4a6de0ae3bd56c6ec63b751fdcdb    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 29 Jan 2016 10:28:03 +0100    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 29 Jan 2016 10:28:03 +0100    

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listForeignTables' invocation of processSQLNamePattern did not match up  
with the other ones that handle potentially-schema-qualified names; it  
failed to make use of pg_table_is_visible() and also passed the name  
arguments in the wrong order.  Bug seems to have been aboriginal in commit  
0d692a0dc9f0e532.  It accidentally sort of worked as long as you didn't  
inquire too closely into the behavior, although the silliness was later  
exposed by inconsistencies in the test queries added by 59efda3e50ca4de6  
(which I probably should have questioned at the time, but didn't).  
Per bug #13899 from Reece Hart.  Patch by Reece Hart and Tom Lane.  
Back-patch to all affected branches.  

M src/bin/psql/describe.c

Fix startup so that log prefix %h works for the log_connections message.

commit   : b043df093a356f0a1936999db3dfddade95c6ffb    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Tue, 26 Jan 2016 15:38:33 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Tue, 26 Jan 2016 15:38:33 -0500    

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We entirely randomly chose to initialize port->remote_host just after  
printing the log_connections message, when we could perfectly well do it  
just before, allowing %h and %r to work for that message.  Per gripe from  
Artem Tomyuk.  

M src/backend/postmaster/postmaster.c

Properly install dynloader.h on MSVC builds

commit   : b1bc381446d7089164b92d52dab1a2d2872dba54    
author   : Bruce Momjian <>    
date     : Tue, 19 Jan 2016 23:30:28 -0500    
committer: Bruce Momjian <>    
date     : Tue, 19 Jan 2016 23:30:28 -0500    

Click here for diff

This will enable PL/Java to be cleanly compiled, as dynloader.h is a  
Report by Chapman Flack  
Patch by Michael Paquier  
Backpatch through 9.1  

M src/backend/utils/fmgr/dfmgr.c
M src/tools/msvc/
M src/tools/msvc/
M src/tools/msvc/clean.bat

Fix spelling mistake.

commit   : 161a767155166e5bc29e515fb16e4c4331be3633    
author   : Robert Haas <>    
date     : Thu, 14 Jan 2016 23:12:05 -0500    
committer: Robert Haas <>    
date     : Thu, 14 Jan 2016 23:12:05 -0500    

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Same patch submitted independently by David Rowley and Peter Geoghegan.  

M contrib/pg_upgrade/controldata.c

Properly close token in sspi authentication

commit   : b1c0f92eb690388a0739bee2793f5ae8baf5d0bb    
author   : Magnus Hagander <>    
date     : Thu, 14 Jan 2016 13:06:03 +0100    
committer: Magnus Hagander <>    
date     : Thu, 14 Jan 2016 13:06:03 +0100    

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We can never leak more than one token, but we shouldn't do that. We  
don't bother closing it in the error paths since the process will  
exit shortly anyway.  
Christian Ullrich  

M src/backend/libpq/auth.c

Handle extension members when first setting object dump flags in pg_dump.

commit   : 5108013dbbfedb5e5af6a58cde5f074d895c46bf    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Wed, 13 Jan 2016 18:55:27 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Wed, 13 Jan 2016 18:55:27 -0500    

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pg_dump's original approach to handling extension member objects was to  
run around and clear (or set) their dump flags rather late in its data  
collection process.  Unfortunately, quite a lot of code expects those flags  
to be valid before that; which was an entirely reasonable expectation  
before we added extensions.  In particular, this explains Karsten Hilbert's  
recent report of pg_upgrade failing on a database in which an extension  
has been installed into the pg_catalog schema.  Its objects are initially  
marked as not-to-be-dumped on the strength of their schema, and later we  
change them to must-dump because we're doing a binary upgrade of their  
extension; but we've already skipped essential tasks like making associated  
DO_SHELL_TYPE objects.  
To fix, collect extension membership data first, and incorporate it in the  
initial setting of the dump flags, so that those are once again correct  
from the get-go.  This has the undesirable side effect of slightly  
lengthening the time taken before pg_dump acquires table locks, but testing  
suggests that the increase in that window is not very much.  
Along the way, get rid of ugly special-case logic for deciding whether  
to dump procedural languages, FDWs, and foreign servers; dump decisions  
for those are now correct up-front, too.  
In 9.3 and up, this also fixes erroneous logic about when to dump event  
triggers (basically, they were *always* dumped before).  In 9.5 and up,  
transform objects had that problem too.  
Since this problem came in with extensions, back-patch to all supported  

M src/bin/pg_dump/common.c
M src/bin/pg_dump/pg_dump.c
M src/bin/pg_dump/pg_dump.h

Clean up some lack-of-STRICT issues in the core code, too.

commit   : 405635ad61d22b9d7a69ef53eb4fbcb2188936da    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sat, 9 Jan 2016 16:58:33 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sat, 9 Jan 2016 16:58:33 -0500    

Click here for diff

A scan for missed proisstrict markings in the core code turned up  
these functions:  
The first three of these take OID, so a null argument will normally look  
like a zero to them, resulting in "ERROR: could not open relation with OID  
0" for brin_summarize_new_values, and no action for the pg_stat_reset_XXX  
functions.  The other three will dump core on a null argument, though this  
is mitigated by the fact that they won't do so until after checking that  
the caller is superuser or has rolreplication privilege.  
In addition, the pg_logical_slot_get/peek[_binary]_changes family was  
intentionally marked nonstrict, but failed to make nullness checks on all  
the arguments; so again a null-pointer-dereference crash is possible but  
only for superusers and rolreplication users.  
Add the missing ARGISNULL checks to the latter functions, and mark the  
former functions as strict in pg_proc.  Make that change in the back  
branches too, even though we can't force initdb there, just so that  
installations initdb'd in future won't have the issue.  Since none of these  
bugs rise to the level of security issues (and indeed the pg_stat_reset_XXX  
functions hardly misbehave at all), it seems sufficient to do this.  
In addition, fix some order-of-operations oddities in the slot_get_changes  
family, mostly cosmetic, but not the part that moves the function's last  
few operations into the PG_TRY block.  As it stood, there was significant  
risk for an error to exit without clearing historical information from  
the system caches.  
The slot_get_changes bugs go back to 9.4 where that code was introduced.  
Back-patch appropriate subsets of the pg_proc changes into all active  
branches, as well.  

M src/include/catalog/pg_proc.h

Clean up code for widget_in() and widget_out().

commit   : fe2578568e769d322036953cb77acea677aaac6a    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sat, 9 Jan 2016 13:44:27 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sat, 9 Jan 2016 13:44:27 -0500    

Click here for diff

Given syntactically wrong input, widget_in() could call atof() with an  
indeterminate pointer argument, typically leading to a crash; or if it  
didn't do that, it might return a NULL pointer, which again would lead  
to a crash since old-style C functions aren't supposed to do things  
that way.  Fix that by correcting the off-by-one syntax test and  
throwing a proper error rather than just returning NULL.  
Also, since widget_in and widget_out have been marked STRICT for a  
long time, their tests for null inputs are just dead code; remove 'em.  
In the oldest branches, also improve widget_out to use snprintf not  
sprintf, just to be sure.  
In passing, get rid of a long-since-useless sprintf into a local buffer  
that nothing further is done with, and make some other minor coding  
style cleanups.  
In the intended regression-testing usage of these functions, none of  
this is very significant; but if the regression test database were  
left around in a production installation, these bugs could amount  
to a minor security hazard.  
Piotr Stefaniak, Michael Paquier, and Tom Lane  

M src/test/regress/regress.c

Add STRICT to some C functions created by the regression tests.

commit   : e8808f3d72355e701a7abf4150b5b63e1df37d55    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sat, 9 Jan 2016 13:02:54 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sat, 9 Jan 2016 13:02:54 -0500    

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These functions readily crash when passed a NULL input value.  The tests  
themselves do not pass NULL values to them; but when the regression  
database is used as a basis for fuzz testing, they cause a lot of noise.  
Also, if someone were to leave a regression database lying about in a  
production installation, these would create a minor security hazard.  
Andreas Seltenreich  

M src/test/regress/input/create_function_2.source
M src/test/regress/output/create_function_2.source

Fix unobvious interaction between -X switch and subdirectory creation.

commit   : b05a34739fc1188056931eeec780817bdbb84381    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Thu, 7 Jan 2016 18:20:58 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Thu, 7 Jan 2016 18:20:58 -0500    

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Turns out the only reason initdb -X worked is that pg_mkdir_p won't  
whine if you point it at something that's a symlink to a directory.  
Otherwise, the attempt to create pg_xlog/ just like all the other  
subdirectories would have failed.  Let's be a little more explicit  
about what's happening.  Oversight in my patch for bug #13853  
(mea culpa for not testing -X ...)  

M src/bin/initdb/initdb.c

Use plain mkdir() not pg_mkdir_p() to create subdirectories of PGDATA.

commit   : 099541e8f1988cd8c1ae1a00ded015370fbc61b2    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Thu, 7 Jan 2016 15:22:01 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Thu, 7 Jan 2016 15:22:01 -0500    

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When we're creating subdirectories of PGDATA during initdb, we know darn  
well that the parent directory exists (or should exist) and that the new  
subdirectory doesn't (or shouldn't).  There is therefore no need to use  
anything more complicated than mkdir().  Using pg_mkdir_p() just opens us  
up to unexpected failure modes, such as the one exhibited in bug #13853  
from Nuri Boardman.  It's not very clear why pg_mkdir_p() went wrong there,  
but it is clear that we didn't need to be trying to create parent  
directories in the first place.  We're not even saving any code, as proven  
by the fact that this patch nets out at minus five lines.  
Since this is a response to a field bug report, back-patch to all branches.  

M src/bin/initdb/initdb.c

Windows: Make pg_ctl reliably detect service status

commit   : b96f6f4443fcc68336c7ed45e470c577a4891c00    
author   : Alvaro Herrera <>    
date     : Thu, 7 Jan 2016 11:59:08 -0300    
committer: Alvaro Herrera <>    
date     : Thu, 7 Jan 2016 11:59:08 -0300    

Click here for diff

pg_ctl is using isatty() to verify whether the process is running in a  
terminal, and if not it sends its output to Windows' Event Log ... which  
does the wrong thing when the output has been redirected to a pipe, as  
reported in bug #13592.  
To fix, make pg_ctl use the code we already have to detect service-ness:  
in the master branch, move src/backend/port/win32/security.c to src/port  
(with suitable tweaks so that it runs properly in backend and frontend  
environments); pg_ctl already has access to pgport so it Just Works.  In  
older branches, that's likely to cause trouble, so instead duplicate the  
required code in pg_ctl.c.  
Author: Michael Paquier  
Bug report and diagnosis: Egon Kocjan  
Backpatch: all supported branches  

M src/bin/pg_ctl/pg_ctl.c

Fix treatment of *lpNumberOfBytesRecvd == 0: that's a completion condition.

commit   : d05103b7747f771d4c549d90cc309914867069b5    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Mon, 4 Jan 2016 17:41:33 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Mon, 4 Jan 2016 17:41:33 -0500    

Click here for diff

pgwin32_recv() has treated a non-error return of zero bytes from WSARecv()  
as being a reason to block ever since the current implementation was  
introduced in commit a4c40f140d23cefb.  However, so far as one can tell  
from Microsoft's documentation, that is just wrong: what it means is  
graceful connection closure (in stream protocols) or receipt of a  
zero-length message (in message protocols), and neither case should result  
in blocking here.  The only reason the code worked at all was that control  
then fell into the retry loop, which did *not* treat zero bytes specially,  
so we'd get out after only wasting some cycles.  But as of 9.5 we do not  
normally reach the retry loop and so the bug is exposed, as reported by  
Shay Rojansky and diagnosed by Andres Freund.  
Remove the unnecessary test on the byte count, and rearrange the code  
in the retry loop so that it looks identical to the initial sequence.  
Back-patch of commit 90e61df8130dc7051a108ada1219fb0680cb3eb6.  The  
original plan was to apply this only to 9.5 and up, but after discussion  
and buildfarm testing, it seems better to back-patch.  The noblock code  
path has been at risk of this problem since it was introduced (in 9.0);  
if it did happen in pre-9.5 branches, the symptom would be that a walsender  
would wait indefinitely rather than noticing a loss of connection.  While  
we lack proof that the case has been seen in the field, it seems possible  
that it's happened without being reported.  

M src/backend/port/win32/socket.c

Teach pg_dump to quote reloption values safely.

commit   : e4959fb5cb15f486dcc3489c3e6ddfa37b00c551    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sat, 2 Jan 2016 19:04:45 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sat, 2 Jan 2016 19:04:45 -0500    

Click here for diff

Commit c7e27becd2e6eb93 fixed this on the backend side, but we neglected  
the fact that several code paths in pg_dump were printing reloptions  
values that had not gotten massaged by ruleutils.  Apply essentially the  
same quoting logic in those places, too.  

M src/bin/pg_dump/pg_dump.c
M src/bin/pg_dump/pg_dump.h

Adjust back-branch release note description of commits a2a718b22 et al.

commit   : aa078a9f45099e6a385445a4350ed2af94154070    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sat, 2 Jan 2016 15:29:03 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sat, 2 Jan 2016 15:29:03 -0500    

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As pointed out by Michael Paquier, recovery_min_apply_delay didn't exist  
in 9.0-9.3, making the release note text not very useful.  Instead make it  
talk about recovery_target_xid, which did exist then.  
9.0 is already out of support, but we can fix the text in the newer  
branches' copies of its release notes.  

M doc/src/sgml/release-9.0.sgml
M doc/src/sgml/release-9.1.sgml

commit   : 2da136dccca66ccc26271fc814b3eba1edc49422    
author   : Bruce Momjian <>    
date     : Sat, 2 Jan 2016 13:33:39 -0500    
committer: Bruce Momjian <>    
date     : Sat, 2 Jan 2016 13:33:39 -0500    

Click here for diff

Backpatch certain files through 9.1  

M doc/src/sgml/legal.sgml

Teach flatten_reloptions() to quote option values safely.

commit   : 85dbc46bd7f69a8c5db611bc70e96c5348f5f289    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 1 Jan 2016 15:27:53 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 1 Jan 2016 15:27:53 -0500    

Click here for diff

flatten_reloptions() supposed that it didn't really need to do anything  
beyond inserting commas between reloption array elements.  However, in  
principle the value of a reloption could be nearly anything, since the  
grammar allows a quoted string there.  Any restrictions on it would come  
from validity checking appropriate to the particular option, if any.  
A reloption value that isn't a simple identifier or number could thus lead  
to dump/reload failures due to syntax errors in CREATE statements issued  
by pg_dump.  We've gotten away with not worrying about this so far with  
the core-supported reloptions, but extensions might allow reloption values  
that cause trouble, as in bug #13840 from Kouhei Sutou.  
To fix, split the reloption array elements explicitly, and then convert  
any value that doesn't look like a safe identifier to a string literal.  
(The details of the quoting rule could be debated, but this way is safe  
and requires little code.)  While we're at it, also quote reloption names  
if they're not safe identifiers; that may not be a likely problem in the  
field, but we might as well try to be bulletproof here.  
It's been like this for a long time, so back-patch to all supported  
Kouhei Sutou, adjusted some by me  

M src/backend/utils/adt/ruleutils.c

Add some more defenses against silly estimates to gincostestimate().

commit   : 60f8cc91db50ce1f15dbfd4d3198172b9fa312a9    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 1 Jan 2016 13:42:21 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 1 Jan 2016 13:42:21 -0500    

Click here for diff

A report from Andy Colson showed that gincostestimate() was not being  
nearly paranoid enough about whether to believe the statistics it finds in  
the index metapage.  The problem is that the metapage stats (other than the  
pending-pages count) are only updated by VACUUM, and in the worst case  
could still reflect the index's original empty state even when it has grown  
to many entries.  We attempted to deal with that by scaling up the stats to  
match the current index size, but if nEntries is zero then scaling it up  
still gives zero.  Moreover, the proportion of pages that are entry pages  
vs. data pages vs. pending pages is unlikely to be estimated very well by  
scaling if the index is now orders of magnitude larger than before.  
We can improve matters by expanding the use of the rule-of-thumb estimates  
I introduced in commit 7fb008c5ee59b040: if the index has grown by more  
than a cutoff amount (here set at 4X growth) since VACUUM, then use the  
rule-of-thumb numbers instead of scaling.  This might not be exactly right  
but it seems much less likely to produce insane estimates.  
I also improved both the scaling estimate and the rule-of-thumb estimate  
to account for numPendingPages, since it's reasonable to expect that that  
is accurate in any case, and certainly pages that are in the pending list  
are not either entry or data pages.  
As a somewhat separate issue, adjust the estimation equations that are  
concerned with extra fetches for partial-match searches.  These equations  
suppose that a fraction partialEntries / numEntries of the entry and data  
pages will be visited as a consequence of a partial-match search.  Now,  
it's physically impossible for that fraction to exceed one, but our  
estimate of partialEntries is mostly bunk, and our estimate of numEntries  
isn't exactly gospel either, so we could arrive at a silly value.  In the  
example presented by Andy we were coming out with a value of 100, leading  
to insane cost estimates.  Clamp the fraction to one to avoid that.  
Like the previous patch, back-patch to all supported branches; this  
problem can be demonstrated in one form or another in all of them.  

M src/backend/utils/adt/selfuncs.c

Document the exponentiation operator as associating left to right.

commit   : 4388895a65aa71961e885d8a292e95b70fd57ad8    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Mon, 28 Dec 2015 12:09:00 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Mon, 28 Dec 2015 12:09:00 -0500    

Click here for diff

Common mathematical convention is that exponentiation associates right to  
left.  We aren't going to change the parser for this, but we could note  
it in the operator's description.  (It's already noted in the operator  
precedence/associativity table, but users might not look there.)  
Per bug #13829 from Henrik Pauli.  

M doc/src/sgml/func.sgml

Add forgotten CHECK_FOR_INTERRUPT calls in pgcrypto's crypt()

commit   : 1b6102eb73f4483eb30f3008b07882a93ff369f8    
author   : Alvaro Herrera <>    
date     : Sun, 27 Dec 2015 13:03:19 -0300    
committer: Alvaro Herrera <>    
date     : Sun, 27 Dec 2015 13:03:19 -0300    

Click here for diff

Both Blowfish and DES implementations of crypt() can take arbitrarily  
long time, depending on the number of rounds specified by the caller;  
make sure they can be interrupted.  
Author: Andreas Karlsson  
Reviewer: Jeff Janes  
Backpatch to 9.1.  

M contrib/pgcrypto/crypt-blowfish.c
M contrib/pgcrypto/crypt-des.c

Rework internals of changing a type's ownership

commit   : 7e29e7f5544d41cdf3cc2ed209ecabfa0242af04    
author   : Alvaro Herrera <>    
date     : Mon, 21 Dec 2015 19:49:15 -0300    
committer: Alvaro Herrera <>    
date     : Mon, 21 Dec 2015 19:49:15 -0300    

Click here for diff

This is necessary so that REASSIGN OWNED does the right thing with  
composite types, to wit, that it also alters ownership of the type's  
pg_class entry -- previously, the pg_class entry remained owned by the  
original user, which caused later other failures such as the new owner's  
inability to use ALTER TYPE to rename an attribute of the affected  
composite.  Also, if the original owner is later dropped, the pg_class  
entry becomes owned by a non-existant user which is bogus.  
To fix, create a new routine AlterTypeOwner_oid which knows whether to  
pass the request to ATExecChangeOwner or deal with it directly, and use  
that in shdepReassignOwner rather than calling AlterTypeOwnerInternal  
directly.  AlterTypeOwnerInternal is now simpler in that it only  
modifies the pg_type entry and recurses to handle a possible array type;  
higher-level tasks are handled by either AlterTypeOwner directly or  
I took the opportunity to add a few more objects to the test rig for  
REASSIGN OWNED, so that more cases are exercised.  Additional ones could  
be added for superuser-only-ownable objects (such as FDWs and event  
triggers) but I didn't want to push my luck by adding a new superuser to  
the tests on a backpatchable bug fix.  
Per bug #13666 reported by Chris Pacejo.  
This is a backpatch of commit 756e7b4c9db1 to branches 9.1 -- 9.4.  

M src/backend/catalog/pg_shdepend.c
M src/backend/commands/tablecmds.c
M src/backend/commands/typecmds.c
M src/include/commands/typecmds.h
M src/test/regress/expected/dependency.out
M src/test/regress/sql/dependency.sql

adjust ACL owners for REASSIGN and ALTER OWNER TO

commit   : ab14c1383836301f00461b2a5593aebd340dd801    
author   : Alvaro Herrera <>    
date     : Mon, 21 Dec 2015 19:16:15 -0300    
committer: Alvaro Herrera <>    
date     : Mon, 21 Dec 2015 19:16:15 -0300    

Click here for diff

When REASSIGN and ALTER OWNER TO are used, both the object owner and ACL  
list should be changed from the old owner to the new owner. This patch  
fixes types, foreign data wrappers, and foreign servers to change their  
ACL list properly;  they already changed owners properly.  
Report by Alexey Bashtanov  
This is a backpatch of commit 59367fdf97c (for bug #9923) by Bruce  
Momjian to branches 9.1 - 9.4; it wasn't backpatched originally out of  
concerns that it would create a backwards compatibility problem, but per  
discussion related to bug #13666 that turns out to have been misguided.  
(Therefore, the entry in the 9.5 release notes should be removed.)  
Note that 9.1 didn't have privileges on types (which were introduced by  
commit 729205571e81), so this commit only changes foreign-data related  
objects in that branch.  

M src/backend/commands/foreigncmds.c
M src/test/regress/expected/foreign_data.out

Remove silly completion for "DELETE FROM tabname ...".

commit   : 6270ec1e5cb0efdcb2c8a22f126958e356496e51    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sun, 20 Dec 2015 18:29:52 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sun, 20 Dec 2015 18:29:52 -0500    

Click here for diff

psql offered USING, WHERE, and SET in this context, but SET is not a valid  
possibility here.  Seems to have been a thinko in commit f5ab0a14ea83eb6c  
which added DELETE's USING option.  

M src/bin/psql/tab-complete.c

Fix improper initialization order for readline.

commit   : db462a44e22dbaa945eabac7f73d2a240037f75e    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Thu, 17 Dec 2015 16:55:23 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Thu, 17 Dec 2015 16:55:23 -0500    

Click here for diff

Turns out we must set rl_basic_word_break_characters *before* we call  
rl_initialize() the first time, because it will quietly copy that value  
elsewhere --- but only on the first call.  (Love these undocumented  
dependencies.)  I broke this yesterday in commit 2ec477dc8108339d;  
like that commit, back-patch to all active branches.  Per report from  
Pavel Stehule.  

M src/bin/psql/input.c

Cope with Readline's failure to track SIGWINCH events outside of input.

commit   : 03b138e90479895bf5467f38b40d817512822fcd    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Wed, 16 Dec 2015 16:58:56 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Wed, 16 Dec 2015 16:58:56 -0500    

Click here for diff

It emerges that libreadline doesn't notice terminal window size change  
events unless they occur while collecting input.  This is easy to stumble  
over if you resize the window while using a pager to look at query output,  
but it can be demonstrated without any pager involvement.  The symptom is  
that queries exceeding one line are misdisplayed during subsequent input  
cycles, because libreadline has the wrong idea of the screen dimensions.  
The safest, simplest way to fix this is to call rl_reset_screen_size()  
just before calling readline().  That causes an extra ioctl(TIOCGWINSZ)  
for every command; but since it only happens when reading from a tty, the  
performance impact should be negligible.  A more valid objection is that  
this still leaves a tiny window during entry to readline() wherein delivery  
of SIGWINCH will be missed; but the practical consequences of that are  
probably negligible.  In any case, there doesn't seem to be any good way to  
avoid the race, since readline exposes no functions that seem safe to call  
from a generic signal handler --- rl_reset_screen_size() certainly isn't.  
It turns out that we also need an explicit rl_initialize() call, else  
rl_reset_screen_size() dumps core when called before the first readline()  
rl_reset_screen_size() is not present in old versions of libreadline,  
so we need a configure test for that.  (rl_initialize() is present at  
least back to readline 4.0, so we won't bother with a test for it.)  
We would need a configure test anyway since libedit's emulation of  
libreadline doesn't currently include such a function.  Fortunately,  
libedit seems not to have any corresponding bug.  
Merlin Moncure, adjusted a bit by me  

M configure
M src/bin/psql/input.c
M src/include/

Add missing CHECK_FOR_INTERRUPTS in lseg_inside_poly

commit   : c54bc78b6171ee1ba3d903e9ead3e9b8a80518b8    
author   : Alvaro Herrera <>    
date     : Mon, 14 Dec 2015 16:44:40 -0300    
committer: Alvaro Herrera <>    
date     : Mon, 14 Dec 2015 16:44:40 -0300    

Click here for diff

Apparently, there are bugs in this code that cause it to loop endlessly.  
That bug still needs more research, but in the meantime it's clear that  
the loop is missing a check for interrupts so that it can be cancelled  
Backpatch to 9.1 -- this has been missing since 49475aab8d0d.  

M src/backend/utils/adt/geo_ops.c

Fix out-of-memory error handling in ParameterDescription message processing.

commit   : 4b58ded7498fccac1526cb27788dd7baad651b14    
author   : Heikki Linnakangas <>    
date     : Mon, 14 Dec 2015 18:19:10 +0200    
committer: Heikki Linnakangas <>    
date     : Mon, 14 Dec 2015 18:19:10 +0200    

Click here for diff

If libpq ran out of memory while constructing the result set, it would hang,  
waiting for more data from the server, which might never arrive. To fix,  
distinguish between out-of-memory error and not-enough-data cases, and give  
a proper error message back to the client on OOM.  
There are still similar issues in handling COPY start messages, but let's  
handle that as a separate patch.  
Michael Paquier, Amit Kapila and me. Backpatch to all supported versions.  

M src/interfaces/libpq/fe-protocol3.c

Correct statement to actually be the intended assert statement.

commit   : 476c54b89b55c980241ee10d6c3fed32e389135f    
author   : Andres Freund <>    
date     : Mon, 14 Dec 2015 11:24:53 +0100    
committer: Andres Freund <>    
date     : Mon, 14 Dec 2015 11:24:53 +0100    

Click here for diff

e3f4cfc7 introduced a LWLockHeldByMe() call, without the corresponding  
Assert() surrounding it.  
Spotted by Coverity.  
Backpatch: 9.1+, like the previous commit  

M src/backend/storage/buffer/bufmgr.c

Docs: document that psql's "\i -" means read from stdin.

commit   : 20f85bc50beae343d921e4992dcadce80b09c404    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sun, 13 Dec 2015 23:42:54 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sun, 13 Dec 2015 23:42:54 -0500    

Click here for diff

This has worked that way for a long time, maybe always, but you would  
not have known it from the documentation.  Also back-patch the notes  
I added to HEAD earlier today about behavior of the "-f -" switch,  
which likewise have been valid for many releases.  

M doc/src/sgml/ref/psql-ref.sgml

Doc: update external URLs for PostGIS project.

commit   : f2ce8f2b93cb73d8384064b5d4b4a69412871b8a    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sat, 12 Dec 2015 20:02:09 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sat, 12 Dec 2015 20:02:09 -0500    

Click here for diff

Paul Ramsey  

M doc/src/sgml/earthdistance.sgml
M doc/src/sgml/external-projects.sgml
M doc/src/sgml/release-8.4.sgml

Fix ALTER TABLE ... SET TABLESPACE for unlogged relations.

commit   : 5f9a86b353fa463534746809890756677270dad2    
author   : Andres Freund <>    
date     : Sat, 12 Dec 2015 14:19:29 +0100    
committer: Andres Freund <>    
date     : Sat, 12 Dec 2015 14:19:29 +0100    

Click here for diff

Changing the tablespace of an unlogged relation did not WAL log the  
creation and content of the init fork. Thus, after a standby is  
promoted, unlogged relation cannot be accessed anymore, with errors  
ERROR:  58P01: could not open file "pg_tblspc/...": No such file or directory  
Additionally the init fork was not synced to disk, independent of the  
configured wal_level, a relatively small durability risk.  
Investigation of that problem also brought to light that, even for  
permanent relations, the creation of !main forks was not WAL logged,  
i.e. no XLOG_SMGR_CREATE record were emitted. That mostly turns out not  
to be a problem, because these files were created when the actual  
relation data is copied; nonexistent files are not treated as an error  
condition during replay. But that doesn't work for empty files, and  
generally feels a bit haphazard. Luckily, outside init and main forks,  
empty forks don't occur often or are not a problem.  
Add the required WAL logging and syncing to disk.  
Reported-By: Michael Paquier  
Author: Michael Paquier and Andres Freund  
Backpatch: 9.1, where unlogged relations were introduced  

M src/backend/commands/tablecmds.c

Add an expected-file to match behavior of latest libxml2.

commit   : 386dcd539837f8ed878bc25703d29c58a24fe6ae    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 11 Dec 2015 19:08:40 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 11 Dec 2015 19:08:40 -0500    

Click here for diff

Recent releases of libxml2 do not provide error context reports for errors  
detected at the very end of the input string.  This appears to be a bug, or  
at least an infelicity, introduced by the fix for libxml2's CVE-2015-7499.  
We can hope that this behavioral change will get undone before too long;  
but the security patch is likely to spread a lot faster/further than any  
follow-on cleanup, which means this behavior is likely to be present in the  
wild for some time to come.  As a stopgap, add a variant regression test  
expected-file that matches what you get with a libxml2 that acts this way.  

A src/test/regress/expected/xml_2.out

For REASSIGN OWNED for foreign user mappings

commit   : f44c5203b741ed2f188a9e58b62e93c8c47e9bb4    
author   : Alvaro Herrera <>    
date     : Fri, 11 Dec 2015 18:39:09 -0300    
committer: Alvaro Herrera <>    
date     : Fri, 11 Dec 2015 18:39:09 -0300    

Click here for diff

As reported in bug #13809 by Alexander Ashurkov, the code for REASSIGN  
OWNED hadn't gotten word about user mappings.  Deal with them in the  
same way default ACLs do, which is to ignore them altogether; they are  
handled just fine by DROP OWNED.  The other foreign object cases are  
already handled correctly by both commands.  
Also add a REASSIGN OWNED statement to foreign_data test to exercise the  
foreign data objects.  (The changes are just before the "cleanup" phase,  
so it shouldn't remove any existing live test.)  
Reported by Alexander Ashurkov, then independently by Jaime Casanova.  

M src/backend/catalog/pg_shdepend.c
M src/test/regress/expected/foreign_data.out
M src/test/regress/sql/foreign_data.sql

Install our "missing" script where PGXS builds can find it.

commit   : 2a37a103b991f15899dfe1a405807a0923f6f02b    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 11 Dec 2015 16:14:27 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 11 Dec 2015 16:14:27 -0500    

Click here for diff

This allows sane behavior in a PGXS build done on a machine where build  
tools such as bison are missing.  
Jim Nasby  

M config/Makefile

Fix bug leading to restoring unlogged relations from empty files.

commit   : 3199c13fcc34ee79bc26cac17204e93cdc4a756f    
author   : Andres Freund <>    
date     : Thu, 10 Dec 2015 16:25:12 +0100    
committer: Andres Freund <>    
date     : Thu, 10 Dec 2015 16:25:12 +0100    

Click here for diff

At the end of crash recovery, unlogged relations are reset to the empty  
state, using their init fork as the template. The init fork is copied to  
the main fork without going through shared buffers. Unfortunately WAL  
replay so far has not necessarily flushed writes from shared buffers to  
disk at that point. In normal crash recovery, and before the  
introduction of 'fast promotions' in fd4ced523 / 9.3, the  
END_OF_RECOVERY checkpoint flushes the buffers out in time. But with  
fast promotions that's not the case anymore.  
To fix, force WAL writes targeting the init fork to be flushed  
immediately (using the new FlushOneBuffer() function). In 9.5+ that  
flush can centrally be triggered from the code dealing with restoring  
full page writes (XLogReadBufferForRedoExtended), in earlier releases  
that responsibility is in the hands of XLOG_HEAP_NEWPAGE's replay  
Backpatch to 9.1, even if this currently is only known to trigger in  
9.3+. Flushing earlier is more robust, and it is advantageous to keep  
the branches similar.  
Typical symptoms of this bug are errors like  
'ERROR:  index "..." contains unexpected zero page at block 0'  
shortly after promoting a node.  
Reported-By: Thom Brown  
Author: Andres Freund and Michael Paquier  
Backpatch: 9.1-  

M src/backend/access/heap/heapam.c
M src/backend/storage/buffer/bufmgr.c
M src/include/storage/bufmgr.h

Further improve documentation of the role-dropping process.

commit   : f9fc8e79cd44a755a397886e791eefffacf02a2a    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 4 Dec 2015 14:44:13 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 4 Dec 2015 14:44:13 -0500    

Click here for diff

In commit 1ea0c73c2 I added a section to user-manag.sgml about how to drop  
roles that own objects; but as pointed out by Stephen Frost, I neglected  
that shared objects (databases or tablespaces) may need special treatment.  
Fix that.  Back-patch to supported versions, like the previous patch.  

M doc/src/sgml/user-manag.sgml

Make gincostestimate() cope with hypothetical GIN indexes.

commit   : 7882143dcae11d6d1342f408fe40f3f0c67b746c    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Tue, 1 Dec 2015 16:24:35 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Tue, 1 Dec 2015 16:24:35 -0500    

Click here for diff

We tried to fetch statistics data from the index metapage, which does not  
work if the index isn't actually present.  If the index is hypothetical,  
instead extrapolate some plausible internal statistics based on the index  
page count provided by the index-advisor plugin.  
There was already some code in gincostestimate() to invent internal stats  
in this way, but since it was only meant as a stopgap for pre-9.1 GIN  
indexes that hadn't been vacuumed since upgrading, it was pretty crude.  
If we want it to support index advisors, we should try a little harder.  
A small amount of testing says that it's better to estimate the entry pages  
as 90% of the index, not 100%.  Also, estimating the number of entries  
(keys) as equal to the heap tuple count could be wildly wrong in either  
direction.  Instead, let's estimate 100 entries per entry page.  
Perhaps someday somebody will want the index advisor to be able to provide  
these numbers more directly, but for the moment this should serve.  
Problem report and initial patch by Julien Rouhaud; modified by me to  
invent less-bogus internal statistics.  Back-patch to all supported  
branches, since we've supported index advisors since 9.0.  

M src/backend/utils/adt/selfuncs.c

Use "g" not "f" format in ecpg's PGTYPESnumeric_from_double().

commit   : 84387496f47cac8a1a5f3566e493d270258847b7    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Tue, 1 Dec 2015 11:42:25 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Tue, 1 Dec 2015 11:42:25 -0500    

Click here for diff

The previous coding could overrun the provided buffer size for a very large  
input, or lose precision for a very small input.  Adopt the methodology  
that's been in use in the equivalent backend code for a long time.  
Per private report from Bas van Schaik.  Back-patch to all supported  

M src/interfaces/ecpg/pgtypeslib/numeric.c

Fix failure to consider failure cases in GetComboCommandId().

commit   : cb7ea8d9857b75d599f249bb6119c4fab08f9d14    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:23:03 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:23:03 -0500    

Click here for diff

Failure to initially palloc the comboCids array, or to realloc it bigger  
when needed, left combocid's data structures in an inconsistent state that  
would cause trouble if the top transaction continues to execute.  Noted  
while examining a user complaint about the amount of memory used for this.  
(There's not much we can do about that, but it does point up that repalloc  
failure has a non-negligible chance of occurring here.)  
In HEAD/9.5, also avoid possible invocation of memcpy() with a null pointer  
in SerializeComboCIDState; cf commit 13bba0227.  

M src/backend/utils/time/combocid.c

Be more paranoid about null return values from libpq status functions.

commit   : 6430a11fa9bc2e56d468283ac73c9c15253ae32e    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Wed, 25 Nov 2015 17:31:54 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Wed, 25 Nov 2015 17:31:54 -0500    

Click here for diff

PQhost() can return NULL in non-error situations, namely when a Unix-socket  
connection has been selected by default.  That behavior is a tad debatable  
perhaps, but for the moment we should make sure that psql copes with it.  
Unfortunately, do_connect() failed to: it could pass a NULL pointer to  
strcmp(), resulting in crashes on most platforms.  This was reported as a  
security issue by ChenQin of Topsec Security Team, but the consensus of  
the security list is that it's just a garden-variety bug with no security  
For paranoia's sake, I made the keep_password test not trust PQuser or  
PQport either, even though I believe those will never return NULL given  
a valid PGconn.  
Back-patch to all supported branches.  

M src/bin/psql/command.c

pg_upgrade: fix CopyFile() on Windows to fail on file existence

commit   : c36064e438c738fb305919874f22ef1e9b755a63    
author   : Bruce Momjian <>    
date     : Tue, 24 Nov 2015 17:18:27 -0500    
committer: Bruce Momjian <>    
date     : Tue, 24 Nov 2015 17:18:27 -0500    

Click here for diff

Also fix getErrorText() to return the right error string on failure.  
This behavior now matches that of other operating systems.  
Report by Noah Misch  
Backpatch through 9.1  

M contrib/pg_upgrade/file.c
M contrib/pg_upgrade/util.c

Fix Windows builds in back branches.

commit   : 6df62ef43ef3455882ee2829986aae08f3e64aea    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Mon, 23 Nov 2015 00:32:01 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Mon, 23 Nov 2015 00:32:01 -0500    

Click here for diff

I missed adding src/port/tar.c to the Windows build files when  
back-patching the addition of that file to 9.2 and 9.1.  
Per buildfarm.  

M src/tools/msvc/

Adopt the GNU convention for handling tar-archive members exceeding 8GB.

commit   : 8f1559aa57b5038057c85be2f9ed00b641d3ac9d    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sat, 21 Nov 2015 20:21:32 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sat, 21 Nov 2015 20:21:32 -0500    

Click here for diff

The POSIX standard for tar headers requires archive member sizes to be  
printed in octal with at most 11 digits, limiting the representable file  
size to 8GB.  However, GNU tar and apparently most other modern tars  
support a convention in which oversized values can be stored in base-256,  
allowing any practical file to be a tar member.  Adopt this convention  
to remove two limitations:  
* pg_dump with -Ft output format failed if the contents of any one table  
exceeded 8GB.  
* pg_basebackup failed if the data directory contained any file exceeding  
8GB.  (This would be a fatal problem for installations configured with a  
table segment size of 8GB or more, and it has also been seen to fail when  
large core dump files exist in the data directory.)  
File sizes under 8GB are still printed in octal, so that no compatibility  
issues are created except in cases that would have failed entirely before.  
In addition, this patch fixes several bugs in the same area:  
* In 9.3 and later, we'd defined tarCreateHeader's file-size argument as  
size_t, which meant that on 32-bit machines it would write a corrupt tar  
header for file sizes between 4GB and 8GB, even though no error was raised.  
This broke both "pg_dump -Ft" and pg_basebackup for such cases.  
* pg_restore from a tar archive would fail on tables of size between 4GB  
and 8GB, on machines where either "size_t" or "unsigned long" is 32 bits.  
This happened even with an archive file not affected by the previous bug.  
* pg_basebackup would fail if there were files of size between 4GB and 8GB,  
even on 64-bit machines.  
* In 9.3 and later, "pg_basebackup -Ft" failed entirely, for any file size,  
on 64-bit big-endian machines.  
In view of these potential data-loss bugs, back-patch to all supported  
branches, even though removal of the documented 8GB limit might otherwise  
be considered a new feature rather than a bug fix.  

M doc/src/sgml/ref/pg_dump.sgml
M src/backend/replication/basebackup.c
M src/bin/pg_basebackup/pg_basebackup.c
M src/bin/pg_dump/pg_backup_tar.c
A src/include/pgtar.h
M src/port/Makefile
A src/port/tar.c

Fix handling of inherited check constraints in ALTER COLUMN TYPE (again).

commit   : 60ba32cb5128571aec344288cc26986215becd67    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 20 Nov 2015 14:55:29 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 20 Nov 2015 14:55:29 -0500    

Click here for diff

The previous way of reconstructing check constraints was to do a separate  
"ALTER TABLE ONLY tab ADD CONSTRAINT" for each table in an inheritance  
hierarchy.  However, that way has no hope of reconstructing the check  
constraints' own inheritance properties correctly, as pointed out in  
bug #13779 from Jan Dirk Zijlstra.  What we should do instead is to do  
a regular "ALTER TABLE", allowing recursion, at the topmost table that  
has a particular constraint, and then suppress the work queue entries  
for inherited instances of the constraint.  
Annoyingly, we'd tried to fix this behavior before, in commit 5ed6546cf,  
but we failed to notice that it wasn't reconstructing the pg_constraint  
field values correctly.  
As long as I'm touching pg_get_constraintdef_worker anyway, tweak it to  
always schema-qualify the target table name; this seems like useful backup  
to the protections installed by commit 5f173040.  
In HEAD/9.5, get rid of get_constraint_relation_oids, which is now unused.  
(I could alternatively have modified it to also return conislocal, but that  
seemed like a pretty single-purpose API, so let's not pretend it has some  
other use.)  It's unused in the back branches as well, but I left it in  
place just in case some third-party code has decided to use it.  
In HEAD/9.5, also rename pg_get_constraintdef_string to  
pg_get_constraintdef_command, as the previous name did nothing to explain  
what that entry point did differently from others (and its comment was  
equally useless).  Again, that change doesn't seem like material for  
I did a bit of re-pgindenting in tablecmds.c in HEAD/9.5, as well.  
Otherwise, back-patch to all supported branches.  

M src/backend/commands/tablecmds.c
M src/backend/utils/adt/ruleutils.c
M src/test/regress/expected/alter_table.out
M src/test/regress/sql/alter_table.sql

Accept flex > 2.5.x in configure.

commit   : b4afc39f7af07bd0e3781582479a398cc11bfa85    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Wed, 18 Nov 2015 17:45:06 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Wed, 18 Nov 2015 17:45:06 -0500    

Click here for diff

Per buildfarm member anchovy, 2.6.0 exists in the wild now.  
Hopefully it works with Postgres; if not, we'll have to do something  
about that, but in any case claiming it's "too old" is pretty silly.  

M config/programs.m4
M configure

Fix possible internal overflow in numeric division.

commit   : 728a2ac214d8084cdc471fe18ece8d2699f47814    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Tue, 17 Nov 2015 15:46:47 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Tue, 17 Nov 2015 15:46:47 -0500    

Click here for diff

div_var_fast() postpones propagating carries in the same way as mul_var(),  
so it has the same corner-case overflow risk we fixed in 246693e5ae8a36f0,  
namely that the size of the carries has to be accounted for when setting  
the threshold for executing a carry propagation step.  We've not devised  
a test case illustrating the brokenness, but the required fix seems clear  
enough.  Like the previous fix, back-patch to all active branches.  
Dean Rasheed  

M src/backend/utils/adt/numeric.c

Fix ruleutils.c's dumping of whole-row Vars in ROW() and VALUES() contexts.

commit   : 7b21d1bcafef3bb039cef3725c01894070700f99    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sun, 15 Nov 2015 14:41:09 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sun, 15 Nov 2015 14:41:09 -0500    

Click here for diff

Normally ruleutils prints a whole-row Var as "foo.*".  We already knew that  
that doesn't work at top level of a SELECT list, because the parser would  
treat the "*" as a directive to expand the reference into separate columns,  
not a whole-row Var.  However, Joshua Yanovski points out in bug #13776  
that the same thing happens at top level of a ROW() construct; and some  
nosing around in the parser shows that the same is true in VALUES().  
Hence, apply the same workaround already devised for the SELECT-list case,  
namely to add a forced cast to the appropriate rowtype in these cases.  
(The alternative of just printing "foo" was rejected because it is  
difficult to avoid ambiguity against plain columns named "foo".)  
Back-patch to all supported branches.  

M src/backend/utils/adt/ruleutils.c
M src/test/regress/expected/create_view.out
M src/test/regress/sql/create_view.sql

pg_upgrade: properly detect file copy failure on Windows

commit   : bdcbc2b47141cb84e6cd951fa7feef9cedce231a    
author   : Bruce Momjian <>    
date     : Sat, 14 Nov 2015 11:47:11 -0500    
committer: Bruce Momjian <>    
date     : Sat, 14 Nov 2015 11:47:11 -0500    

Click here for diff

Previously, file copy failures were ignored on Windows due to an  
incorrect return value check.  
Report by Manu Joye  
Backpatch through 9.1  

M contrib/pg_upgrade/file.c
M contrib/pg_upgrade/pg_upgrade.h

Improve our workaround for 'TeX capacity exceeded' in building PDF files.

commit   : 7fe1d1cfbfaf190ccba576a50214378f6a262325    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Tue, 10 Nov 2015 15:59:59 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Tue, 10 Nov 2015 15:59:59 -0500    

Click here for diff

In commit a5ec86a7c787832d28d5e50400ec96a5190f2555 I wrote a quick hack  
that reduced the number of TeX string pool entries created while converting  
our documentation to PDF form.  That held the fort for awhile, but as of  
HEAD we're back up against the same limitation.  It turns out that the  
original coding of \FlowObjectSetup actually results in *three* string pool  
entries being generated for every "flow object" (that is, potential  
cross-reference target) in the documentation, and my previous hack only got  
rid of one of them.  With a little more care, we can reduce the string  
count to one per flow object plus one per actually-cross-referenced flow  
object (about 115000 + 5000 as of current HEAD); that should work until  
the documentation volume roughly doubles from where it is today.  
As a not-incidental side benefit, this change also causes pdfjadetex to  
stop emitting unreferenced hyperlink anchors (bookmarks) into the PDF file.  
It had been making one willy-nilly for every flow object; now it's just one  
per actually-cross-referenced object.  This results in close to a 2X  
savings in PDF file size.  We will still want to run the output through  
"jpdftweak" to get it to be compressed; but we no longer need removal of  
unreferenced bookmarks, so we might be able to find a quicker tool for  
that step.  
Although the failure only affects HEAD and US-format output at the moment,  
9.5 cannot be more than a few pages short of failing likewise, so it  
will inevitably fail after a few rounds of minor-version release notes.  
I don't have a lot of faith that we'll never hit the limit in the older  
branches; and anyway it would be nice to get rid of jpdftweak across the  
board.  Therefore, back-patch to all supported branches.  

M doc/src/sgml/jadetex.cfg

Don't connect() to a wildcard address in test_postmaster_connection().

commit   : 87deb55a4723e3ee00e4324fca684c26cfa17cc6    
author   : Noah Misch <>    
date     : Sun, 8 Nov 2015 17:28:53 -0500    
committer: Noah Misch <>    
date     : Sun, 8 Nov 2015 17:28:53 -0500    

Click here for diff

At least OpenBSD, NetBSD, and Windows don't support it.  This repairs  
pg_ctl for listen_addresses='' and listen_addresses='::'.  Since  
pg_ctl prefers to test a Unix-domain socket, Windows users are most  
likely to need this change.  Back-patch to 9.1 (all supported versions).  
This could change pg_ctl interaction with loopback-interface firewall  
rules.  Therefore, in 9.4 and earlier (released branches), activate the  
change only on known-affected platforms.  
Reported (bug #13611) and designed by Kondo Yuta.  

M src/bin/pg_ctl/pg_ctl.c

Fix enforcement of restrictions inside regexp lookaround constraints.

commit   : 03ee6591dd305613a22902fb777a192fe1970adc    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sat, 7 Nov 2015 12:43:24 -0500    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Sat, 7 Nov 2015 12:43:24 -0500    

Click here for diff

Lookahead and lookbehind constraints aren't allowed to contain backrefs,  
and parentheses within them are always considered non-capturing.  Or so  
says the manual.  But the regexp parser forgot about these rules once  
inside a parenthesized subexpression, so that constructs like (\w)(?=(\1))  
were accepted (but then not correctly executed --- a case like this acted  
like (\w)(?=\w), without any enforcement that the two \w's match the same  
text).  And in (?=((foo))) the innermost parentheses would be counted as  
capturing parentheses, though no text would ever be captured for them.  
To fix, properly pass down the "type" argument to the recursive invocation  
of parse().  
Back-patch to all supported branches; it was agreed that silent  
misexecution of such patterns is worse than throwing an error, even though  
new errors in minor releases are generally not desirable.  

M src/backend/regex/regcomp.c

Fix serialization anomalies due to race conditions on INSERT.

commit   : 08322daed33e0c35b77194c4ad70dbd21790c7e6    
author   : Kevin Grittner <>    
date     : Sat, 31 Oct 2015 14:36:58 -0500    
committer: Kevin Grittner <>    
date     : Sat, 31 Oct 2015 14:36:58 -0500    

Click here for diff

On insert the CheckForSerializableConflictIn() test was performed  
before the page(s) which were going to be modified had been locked  
(with an exclusive buffer content lock).  If another process  
acquired a relation SIReadLock on the heap and scanned to a page on  
which an insert was going to occur before the page was so locked,  
a rw-conflict would be missed, which could allow a serialization  
anomaly to be missed.  The window between the check and the page  
lock was small, so the bug was generally not noticed unless there  
was high concurrency with multiple processes inserting into the  
same table.  
This was reported by Peter Bailis as bug #11732, by Sean Chittenden  
as bug #13667, and by others.  
The race condition was eliminated in heap_insert() by moving the  
check down below the acquisition of the buffer lock, which had been  
the very next statement.  Because of the loop locking and unlocking  
multiple buffers in heap_multi_insert() a check was added after all  
inserts were completed.  The check before the start of the inserts  
was left because it might avoid a large amount of work to detect a  
serialization anomaly before performing the all of the inserts and  
the related WAL logging.  
While investigating this bug, other SSI bugs which were even harder  
to hit in practice were noticed and fixed, an unnecessary check  
(covered by another check, so redundant) was removed from  
heap_update(), and comments were improved.  
Back-patch to all supported branches.  
Kevin Grittner and Thomas Munro  

M src/backend/access/heap/heapam.c
M src/backend/storage/lmgr/predicate.c

Fix back-patch of commit 8e3b4d9d40244c037bbc6e182ea3fabb9347d482.

commit   : b97a41a7c0270be436b800a83abfffc18a5427a5    
author   : Noah Misch <>    
date     : Tue, 20 Oct 2015 00:57:25 -0400    
committer: Noah Misch <>    
date     : Tue, 20 Oct 2015 00:57:25 -0400    

Click here for diff

master emits an extra context message compared to 9.5 and earlier.  

M src/test/regress/expected/plpgsql.out

Eschew "RESET statement_timeout" in tests.

commit   : 91d62b14f2a62559338c1b763666fcd25c83c2af    
author   : Noah Misch <>    
date     : Tue, 20 Oct 2015 00:37:22 -0400    
committer: Noah Misch <>    
date     : Tue, 20 Oct 2015 00:37:22 -0400    

Click here for diff

Instead, use transaction abort.  Given an unlucky bout of latency, the  
timeout would cancel the RESET itself.  Buildfarm members gharial,  
lapwing, mereswine, shearwater, and sungazer witness that.  Back-patch  
to 9.1 (all supported versions).  The query_canceled test still could  
timeout before entering its subtransaction; for whatever reason, that  
has yet to happen on the buildfarm.  

M src/test/regress/expected/plpgsql.out
M src/test/regress/expected/prepared_xacts.out
M src/test/regress/expected/prepared_xacts_1.out
M src/test/regress/sql/plpgsql.sql
M src/test/regress/sql/prepared_xacts.sql

Fix incorrect handling of lookahead constraints in pg_regprefix().

commit   : 0ce829caf68a95592198d1b45971d11b0f856bb6    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Mon, 19 Oct 2015 13:54:54 -0700    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Mon, 19 Oct 2015 13:54:54 -0700    

Click here for diff

pg_regprefix was doing nothing with lookahead constraints, which would  
be fine if it were the right kind of nothing, but it isn't: we have to  
terminate our search for a fixed prefix, not just pretend the LACON arc  
isn't there.  Otherwise, if the current state has both a LACON outarc and a  
single plain-color outarc, we'd falsely conclude that the color represents  
an addition to the fixed prefix, and generate an extracted index condition  
that restricts the indexscan too much.  (See added regression test case.)  
Terminating the search is conservative: we could traverse the LACON arc  
(thus assuming that the constraint can be satisfied at runtime) and then  
examine the outarcs of the linked-to state.  But that would be a lot more  
work than it seems worth, because writing a LACON followed by a single  
plain character is a pretty silly thing to do.  
This makes a difference only in rather contrived cases, but it's a bug,  
so back-patch to all supported branches.  

M src/backend/regex/regprefix.c

Fix order of arguments in ecpg generated typedef command.

commit   : a9bcd8370391a0cdf2aa6af357ba4a735f60390e    
author   : Michael Meskes <>    
date     : Fri, 16 Oct 2015 17:29:05 +0200    
committer: Michael Meskes <>    
date     : Fri, 16 Oct 2015 17:29:05 +0200    

Click here for diff

M src/interfaces/ecpg/preproc/ecpg.trailer

Miscellaneous cleanup of regular-expression compiler.

commit   : 4083a52f4173b87a883537a1e2957413c2aebd9e    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 16 Oct 2015 15:52:12 -0400    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 16 Oct 2015 15:52:12 -0400    

Click here for diff

Revert our previous addition of "all" flags to copyins() and copyouts();  
they're no longer needed, and were never anything but an unsightly hack.  
Improve a couple of infelicities in the REG_DEBUG code for dumping  
the NFA data structure, including adding code to count the total  
number of states and arcs.  
Add a couple of missed error checks.  
Add some more documentation in the README file, and some regression tests  
illustrating cases that exceeded the state-count limit and/or took  
unreasonable amounts of time before this set of patches.  
Back-patch to all supported branches.  

M src/backend/regex/regc_nfa.c
M src/backend/regex/regcomp.c

Improve memory-usage accounting in regular-expression compiler.

commit   : b94c2b6a69a561906d387cec1de59ac3bb4bb185    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 16 Oct 2015 15:36:17 -0400    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 16 Oct 2015 15:36:17 -0400    

Click here for diff

This code previously counted the number of NFA states it created, and  
complained if a limit was exceeded, so as to prevent bizarre regex patterns  
from consuming unreasonable time or memory.  That's fine as far as it went,  
but the code paid no attention to how many arcs linked those states.  Since  
regexes can be contrived that have O(N) states but will need O(N^2) arcs  
after fixempties() processing, it was still possible to blow out memory,  
and take a long time doing it too.  To fix, modify the bookkeeping to count  
space used by both states and arcs.  
I did not bother with including the "color map" in the accounting; it  
can only grow to a few megabytes, which is not a lot in comparison to  
what we're allowing for states+arcs (about 150MB on 64-bit machines  
or half that on 32-bit machines).  
Looking at some of the larger real-world regexes captured in the Tcl  
regression test suite suggests that the most that is likely to be needed  
for regexes found in the wild is under 10MB, so I believe that the current  
limit has enough headroom to make it okay to keep it as a hard-wired limit.  
In connection with this, redefine REG_ETOOBIG as meaning "regular  
expression is too complex"; the previous wording of "nfa has too many  
states" was already somewhat inapropos because of the error code's use  
for stack depth overrun, and it was not very user-friendly either.  
Back-patch to all supported branches.  

M src/backend/regex/regc_nfa.c
M src/backend/regex/regcomp.c
M src/include/regex/regerrs.h
M src/include/regex/regex.h
M src/include/regex/regguts.h

Improve performance of pullback/pushfwd in regular-expression compiler.

commit   : 067f96fe3a70755b225f03cd49f51bd4920a6d91    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 16 Oct 2015 15:11:49 -0400    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 16 Oct 2015 15:11:49 -0400    

Click here for diff

The previous coding would create a new intermediate state every time it  
wanted to interchange the ordering of two constraint arcs.  Certain regex  
features such as \Y can generate large numbers of parallel constraint arcs,  
and if we needed to reorder the results of that, we created unreasonable  
numbers of intermediate states.  To improve matters, keep a list of  
already-created intermediate states associated with the state currently  
being considered by the outer loop; we can re-use such states to place all  
the new arcs leading to the same destination or source.  
I also took the trouble to redefine push() and pull() to have a less risky  
API: they no longer delete any state or arc that the caller might possibly  
have a pointer to, except for the specifically-passed constraint arc.  
This reduces the risk of re-introducing the same type of error seen in  
the failed patch for CVE-2007-4772.  
Back-patch to all supported branches.  

M src/backend/regex/regc_nfa.c
M src/backend/regex/regcomp.c

Improve performance of fixempties() pass in regular-expression compiler.

commit   : 5503e6e0f32baae3e3a4e952d2c493fc20505363    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 16 Oct 2015 14:58:11 -0400    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 16 Oct 2015 14:58:11 -0400    

Click here for diff

The previous coding took something like O(N^4) time to fully process a  
chain of N EMPTY arcs.  We can't really do much better than O(N^2) because  
we have to insert about that many arcs, but we can do lots better than  
what's there now.  The win comes partly from using mergeins() to amortize  
de-duplication of arcs across multiple source states, and partly from  
exploiting knowledge of the ordering of arcs for each state to avoid  
looking at arcs we don't need to consider during the scan.  We do have  
to be a bit careful of the possible reordering of arcs introduced by  
the sort-merge coding of the previous commit, but that's not hard to  
deal with.  
Back-patch to all supported branches.  

M src/backend/regex/regc_nfa.c
M src/backend/regex/regcomp.c

Fix O(N^2) performance problems in regular-expression compiler.

commit   : b00c79b5b97422e425e1feb16327d3eba5fcd228    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 16 Oct 2015 14:43:18 -0400    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 16 Oct 2015 14:43:18 -0400    

Click here for diff

Change the singly-linked in-arc and out-arc lists to be doubly-linked,  
so that arc deletion is constant time rather than having worst-case time  
proportional to the number of other arcs on the connected states.  
Modify the bulk arc transfer operations copyins(), copyouts(), moveins(),  
moveouts() so that they use a sort-and-merge algorithm whenever there's  
more than a small number of arcs to be copied or moved.  The previous  
method is O(N^2) in the number of arcs involved, because it performs  
duplicate checking independently for each copied arc.  The new method may  
change the ordering of existing arcs for the destination state, but nothing  
really cares about that.  
Provide another bulk arc copying method mergeins(), which is unused as  
of this commit but is needed for the next one.  It basically is like  
copyins(), but the source arcs might not all come from the same state.  
Replace the O(N^2) bubble-sort algorithm used in carcsort() with a qsort()  
These changes greatly improve the performance of regex compilation for  
large or complex regexes, at the cost of extra space for arc storage during  
compilation.  The original tradeoff was probably fine when it was made, but  
now we care more about speed and less about memory consumption.  
Back-patch to all supported branches.  

M src/backend/regex/regc_nfa.c
M src/backend/regex/regcomp.c
M src/include/regex/regguts.h

Fix regular-expression compiler to handle loops of constraint arcs.

commit   : d394f12c0c5576ac5a2f43da817074251abefed7    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 16 Oct 2015 14:14:41 -0400    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Fri, 16 Oct 2015 14:14:41 -0400    

Click here for diff

It's possible to construct regular expressions that contain loops of  
constraint arcs (that is, ^ $ AHEAD BEHIND or LACON arcs).  There's no use  
in fully traversing such a loop at execution, since you'd just end up in  
the same NFA state without having consumed any input.  Worse, such a loop  
leads to infinite looping in the pullback/pushfwd stage of compilation,  
because we keep pushing or pulling the same constraints around the loop  
in a vain attempt to move them to the pre or post state.  Such looping was  
previously recognized in CVE-2007-4772; but the fix only handled the case  
of trivial single-state loops (that is, a constraint arc leading back to  
its source state) ... and not only that, it was incorrect even for that  
case, because it broke the admittedly-not-very-clearly-stated API contract  
of the pull() and push() subroutines.  The first two regression test cases  
added by this commit exhibit patterns that result in assertion failures  
because of that (though there seem to be no ill effects in non-assert  
builds).  The other new test cases exhibit multi-state constraint loops;  
in an unpatched build they will run until the NFA state-count limit is  
To fix, remove the code added for CVE-2007-4772, and instead create a  
general-purpose constraint-loop-breaking phase of regex compilation that  
executes before we do pullback/pushfwd.  Since we never need to traverse  
a constraint loop fully, we can just break the loop at any chosen spot,  
if we add clone states that can replicate any sequence of arc transitions  
that would've traversed just part of the loop.  
Also add some commentary clarifying why we have to have all these  
machinations in the first place.  
This class of problems has been known for some time --- we had a report  
from Marc Mamin about two years ago, for example, and there are related  
complaints in the Tcl bug tracker.  I had discussed a fix of this kind  
off-list with Henry Spencer, but didn't get around to doing something  
about it until the issue was rediscovered by Greg Stark recently.  
Back-patch to all supported branches.  

M src/backend/regex/regc_nfa.c
M src/backend/regex/regcomp.c

On Windows, ensure shared memory handle gets closed if not being used.

commit   : b0d8583593b5f778a1c79203f852a6d848294376    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Tue, 13 Oct 2015 11:21:33 -0400    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Tue, 13 Oct 2015 11:21:33 -0400    

Click here for diff

Postmaster child processes that aren't supposed to be attached to shared  
memory were not bothering to close the shared memory mapping handle they  
inherit from the postmaster process.  That's mostly harmless, since the  
handle vanishes anyway when the child process exits -- but the syslogger  
process, if used, doesn't get killed and restarted during recovery from a  
backend crash.  That meant that Windows doesn't see the shared memory  
mapping as becoming free, so it doesn't delete it and the postmaster is  
unable to create a new one, resulting in failure to recover from crashes  
whenever logging_collector is turned on.  
Per report from Dmitry Vasilyev.  It's a bit astonishing that we'd not  
figured this out long ago, since it's been broken from the very beginnings  
of out native Windows support; probably some previously-unexplained trouble  
reports trace to this.  
A secondary problem is that on Cygwin (perhaps only in older versions?),  
exec() may not detach from the shared memory segment after all, in which  
case these child processes did remain attached to shared memory, posing  
the risk of an unexpected shared memory clobber if they went off the rails  
somehow.  That may be a long-gone bug, but we can deal with it now if it's  
still live, by detaching within the infrastructure introduced here to deal  
with closing the handle.  
Back-patch to all supported branches.  
Tom Lane and Amit Kapila  

M src/backend/port/sysv_shmem.c
M src/backend/port/win32_shmem.c
M src/backend/postmaster/postmaster.c
M src/include/storage/pg_shmem.h

Fix "pg_ctl start -w" to test child process status directly.

commit   : c869a7d5b44e7164fadfb638786def05d510312a    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Mon, 12 Oct 2015 18:30:37 -0400    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Mon, 12 Oct 2015 18:30:37 -0400    

Click here for diff

pg_ctl start with -w previously relied on a heuristic that the postmaster  
would surely always manage to create within five seconds.  
Unfortunately, that fails much more often than we would like on some of the  
slower, more heavily loaded buildfarm members.  
We have known for quite some time that we could remove the need for that  
heuristic on Unix by using fork/exec instead of system() to launch the  
postmaster.  This allows us to know the exact PID of the postmaster, which  
allows near-certain verification that the file is the one  
we want and not a leftover, and it also lets us use waitpid() to detect  
reliably whether the child postmaster has exited or not.  
What was blocking this change was not wanting to rewrite the Windows  
version of start_postmaster() to avoid use of CMD.EXE.  That's doable  
in theory but would require fooling about with stdout/stderr redirection,  
and getting the handling of quote-containing postmaster switches to  
stay the same might be rather ticklish.  However, we realized that  
we don't have to do that to fix the problem, because we can test  
whether the shell process has exited as a proxy for whether the  
postmaster is still alive.  That doesn't allow an exact check of the  
PID in, but we're no worse off than before in that  
respect; and we do get to get rid of the heuristic about how long the  
postmaster might take to create  
On Unix, this change means that a second "pg_ctl start -w" immediately  
after another such command will now reliably fail, whereas previously  
it would succeed if done within two seconds of the earlier command.  
Since that's a saner behavior anyway, it's fine.  On Windows, the case can  
still succeed within the same time window, since pg_ctl can't tell that the  
earlier postmaster's isn't the pidfile it is looking for.  
To ensure stable test results on Windows, we can insert a short sleep into  
the test script for pg_ctl, ensuring that the existing pidfile looks stale.  
This hack can be removed if we ever do rewrite start_postmaster(), but that  
no longer seems like a high-priority thing to do.  
Back-patch to all supported versions, both because the current behavior  
is buggy and because we must do that if we want the buildfarm failures  
to go away.  
Tom Lane and Michael Paquier  

M src/bin/pg_ctl/pg_ctl.c

Improve documentation of the role-dropping process.

commit   : ef5f8117be1f8f50d0747129fdf437b4b3fcd61f    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Wed, 7 Oct 2015 16:12:06 -0400    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Wed, 7 Oct 2015 16:12:06 -0400    

Click here for diff

In general one may have to run both REASSIGN OWNED and DROP OWNED to get  
rid of all the dependencies of a role to be dropped.  This was alluded to  
in the REASSIGN OWNED man page, but not really spelled out in full; and in  
any case the procedure ought to be documented in a more prominent place  
than that.  Add a section to the "Database Roles" chapter explaining this,  
and do a bit of wordsmithing in the relevant commands' man pages.  

M doc/src/sgml/ref/drop_owned.sgml
M doc/src/sgml/ref/drop_role.sgml
M doc/src/sgml/ref/drop_user.sgml
M doc/src/sgml/ref/reassign_owned.sgml
M doc/src/sgml/user-manag.sgml

Perform an immediate shutdown if the file is removed.

commit   : dea6da132a5400d45b2a496d49ccb2474fb6edde    
author   : Tom Lane <>    
date     : Tue, 6 Oct 2015 17:15:27 -0400    
committer: Tom Lane <>    
date     : Tue, 6 Oct 2015 17:15:27 -0400    

Click here for diff

The postmaster now checks every minute or so (worst case, at most two  
minutes) that is still there and still contains its own PID.  
If not, it performs an immediate shutdown, as though it had received  
The original goal behind this change was to ensure that failed buildfarm  
runs would get fully cleaned up, even if the test scripts had left a  
postmaster running, which is not an infrequent occurrence.  When the  
buildfarm script removes a test postmaster's $PGDATA directory, its next  
check on will fail and cause it to exit.  Previously, manual  
intervention was often needed to get rid of such orphaned postmasters,  
since they'd block new test postmasters from obtaining the expected socket  
However, by checking and not something else, we can provide  
additional robustness: manual removal of is a frequent DBA  
mistake, and now we can at least limit the damage that will ensue if a new  
postmaster is started while the old one is still alive.  
Back-patch to all supported branches, since we won't get the desired  
improvement in buildfarm reliability otherwise.  

M src/backend/postmaster/postmaster.c
M src/backend/utils/init/miscinit.c
M src/include/miscadmin.h